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Kenapa Negara Jepang Maju? Ini Sepuluh Rahasianya, Dan Itu Sudah Ada Dalam Islam

Tipnoten.com - Telah kita ketahui dan saksikan Negara Jepang adalah negara maju yang sangat hebat dan berjaya. Namun gempa dan tsunami yang melanda negeri matahari itu menghancurkan sebagian besar wilayah jepang yang berdampak pada perekonomiannya. Akan tetapi sepertinya tidak perlu lama bagi jepang agar bisa kembali menguasai perekonomian dunia, karena Jepang dikenal memiliki rakyat yang sangat luar biasa ulet. Banyak orang-orang sukses berasal dari Jepang.

Akan tetapi ternyata penyebab majunya mereka sudah diajarkan dalam agama Islam jauh sebelum negara Jepang ada. Kita bisa berkaca kepada sejarah, di mana belum ada dalam sejarah dunia, yang bisa menguasai sepertiga dunia hanya dalam waktu 30 tahun. Itulah masa para Khalifah Rasyidin.

Berikut kita bahas, bahwa apa yang menjadi penyebab majunya mereka ternyata ada dalam ajaran Islam sejak dahulu.[2]


1.Malu

#“Malu adalah budaya leluhur dan turun temurun bangsa Jepang. Harakiri (bunuh diri dengan menusukkan pisau ke perut) menjadi ritual sejak era samurai, yaitu ketika mereka kalah dalam pertempuran. Masuk ke dunia modern, wacananya sedikit berubah ke fenomena “mengundurkan diri” bagi para pemimpin yang terlibat korupsi atau merasa gagal menjalankan tugasnya. Efek negatifnya mungkin adalah anak-anak SD, SMP yang kadang bunuh diri, karena nilainya jelek atau tidak naik kelas. Mereka malu terhadap lingkungannya apabila mereka melanggar peraturan ataupun norma yang sudah menjadi kesepakatan umum.”#

Malu yang terpuji jelas adalah ajaran Islam. Bahkan jelas dan tegas dari sabda Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, beliau bersabda,

إِنَّ لِكُلِّ دِيْنٍ خُلُقًا وَخَلُقُ اْلإِسْلاَمِ الْـحَيَاءُ.
“Sesungguhnya setiap agama memiliki akhlak, dan akhlak Islam adalah malu.”[3]

Dan Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda,
اَلْـحَيَاءُ لاَ يَأْتِيْ إِلاَّ بِخَيْـرٍ.
“Malu itu tidak mendatangkan sesuatu melainkan kebaikan semata-mata.”[4]

Dalam riwayat Muslim disebutkan,
اَلْـحَيَاءُ خَيْرٌ كُلُّهُ.
“Malu itu kebaikan seluruhnya.”[5]]

Bahkan Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam adalah orang yang paling pemalu. Abu Sa’id Al-Khudri Radhiallahu anhu berkata,

كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَشَدَّ حَيَاءً مِنَ الْعَذْرَاءِ فِـيْ خِدْرِهَا.

“Nabi Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam lebih pemalu daripada gadis yang dipingit di kamarnya.”[6]


2.Mandiri

#“Sejak usia dini anak-anak dilatih untuk mandiri. Bahkan seorang anak TK sudah harus membawa 3 tas besar berisi pakaian ganti, bento (bungkusan makan siang), sepatu ganti, buku-buku, handuk dan sebotol besar minuman yang menggantung di lehernya. Lepas SMA dan masuk bangku kuliah hampir sebagian besar tidak meminta biaya kepada orang tua. Biasanya mereka mengandalkan kerja part time untuk biaya sekolah dan kehidupan sehari-hari. Kalaupun kehabisan uang, mereka “meminjam” uang ke orang tua yang nantinya akan mereka kembalikan di bulan berikutnya.”#

Anjuran untuk berusaha sendiri dan tidak bergantung kepada orang lain adalah ajaran agama Islam.
Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda,

لأَنْ يَأْخُذَ اََحَدُكُمْ اَحْبُلَهُ ثُمَّ يَاْتِى الْجَبَلَ فَيَاْتِىَ بِحُزْمَةٍ مِنْ حَطَبٍ عَلَى ظَهْرِخِ فَيَبِيْعَهَا فَيَكُفَّ اللهُ بِهَا وَجْهَهُ خَيْرٌلَهُ مِنْ اَنْ يَسْأَلَ النَّاسَ اَعْطَوْهُ اَوْ مَنَعُوْهُ.

“Sesungguhnya, seorang di antara kalian membawa tali-talinya dan pergi ke bukit untuk mencari kayu bakar yang diletakkan di punggungnya untuk dijual sehingga ia bisa menutup kebutuhannya, adalah lebih baik daripada meminta-minta kepada orang lain, baik mereka memberi atau tidak”.[7]
Demikian juga nabi Dawud, seorang Raja besar, tetapi ia tetap makan dari hasil kerjanya yaitu mengolah besi.

Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda,

مَا اَكَلَ اَحَدٌطَعَامًا قَطُّ خَيْرًا مِنْ اَنْ يَأْكُلَ مِنْ عَمَلِ يَدِْهِ, وَاِنَّ نَبِيَّّ اللهِ دَاوُدُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ كَانَ يَأْكُلُ مِنْ عَمَلِ يَدِْهِ.

“Tidaklah seseorang makan makanan yang lebih baik daripada hasil usahanya sendiri, sedang Nabi Daud Alaihissalam juga makan dari hasil usahanya sendiri”.[8]
 

3. Pantang menyerah

#“Sejarah membuktikan bahwa Jepang termasuk bangsa yang tahan banting dan pantang menyerah. Rentetan bencana terjadi di tahun 1945, dimulai dari bom atom di Hiroshima dan Nagasaki , disusul dengan kalah perangnya Jepang, dan ditambah dengan adanya gempa bumi besar di Tokyo, ternyata Jepang tidak habis. Dalam beberapa tahun berikutnya Jepang sudah berhasil membangun industri otomotif dan bahkan juga kereta cepat (shinkansen).

Akio Morita juga awalnya menjadi tertawaan orang ketika menawarkan produk Cassete Tapenya yang mungil ke berbagai negara lain. Tapi akhirnya melegenda dengan Sony Walkman-nya. Yang juga cukup unik bahwa ilmu dan teori dimana orang harus belajar dari kegagalan ini mulai diformulasikan di Jepang dengan nama shippaigaku (ilmu kegagalan).”#

Semangat dan pantang menyerah!! Ini adalah ajaran Islam.

Nabi Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda

احرص على ما ينفعك، واستعن بالله ولا تعجزن، وإن أصابك شيء فلا تقل لو أني فعلت لكان كذا وكذا؛ ولكن قل: قدر الله وما شاء فعل، فإن لو تفتح عمل الشيطان

“Bersemangatlah kamu terhadap apa-apa yang bermanfaat bagi kamu, dan mohonlah pertolongan pada Allah dan jangan merasa lemah (pantang menyerah). Dan jika meminpamu sesuatu maka jangan katakan andaikata dulu saya melakukan begini pasti akan begini dan begini, tetapi katakanlah semua adalah takdir dari Allah dan apa yang dikehendakiNya pasti terjadi.”[9]

Ada tawakkal dalam ajaran Islam, lihat bagaimana motivasi Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam agar kita mencontoh burung dalam berusaha, burung tidak tahu pasti di mana ia akan mendapat makanan, akan tetapi yang terpenting bagi burung adalah ia berusaha keluar dan terbang mencari.

Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam bersabda,

لَوْ أَنَّكُمْ تَتَوَكَّلُونَ عَلَى اللَّهِ حَقَّ تَوَكُّلِهِ لَرَزَقَكُمْ كَمَا يَرْزُقُ الطَّيْرَ تَغْدُو خِمَاصاً وَتَرُوحُ بِطَاناً

”Seandainya kalian betul-betul bertawakkal pada Allah, sungguh Allah akan memberikan kalian rizki  sebagaimana burung mendapatkan rizki. Burung tersebut pergi pada pagi hari dalam keadaan lapar dan kembali sore harinya dalam keadaan kenyang.”[10]

“selalu ada Jalan”. ya, ini juga adalah ajaran Islam. Jika kita berusaha dan tawakkal, maka kita akan medapat jalan keluar dari arah yang tidak kita sangka-sangka.

Allah Ta’ala berfirman,

وَيَرْزُقْهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يَحْتَسِبُ وَمَن يَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ

“Dan memberinya rezki dari arah yang tiada disangka-sangkanya. Dan barangsiapa yang bertawakkal kepada Allah niscaya Allah akan mencukupkan (keperluan)nya.” (At-Thalaq: 3)

4.Loyalitas

#”Loyalitas membuat sistem karir di sebuah perusahaan berjalan dan tertata dengan rapi. Sedikit berbeda dengan sistem di Amerika dan Eropa, sangat jarang orang Jepang yang berpindah-pindah pekerjaan.”#

Dalam ajaran Islam seorang muslim diajarkan agar mematuhi persyaratan yang telah mereka sepakati. Jika dalam suatu perusahan mereka bekerja, maka mereka harus mematuhi persyaratan perusahaan yaitu harus mencurahkan yang terbaik serta loyal dengan perusahaan teresebut selama tidak melanggar batas syariat.
Nabi shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam,

المُسْلِمُوْنَ عَلَى شُرُوطِهِمْ

 “Umat Islam berkewajiban untuk senantiasa memenuhi persyaratan mereka.“[11]

5.Inovasi

#”Jepang bukan bangsa penemu, tapi orang Jepang mempunyai kelebihan dalam meracik temuan orang dan kemudian memasarkannya dalam bentuk yang diminati oleh masyarakat.’#

Islam juga mengajarkan agar kita mengembangkan Ilmu dan belajar (bukan inovasi dalam urusan agama = bid’ah). Bahkan kedudukan orang yang berilmu tinggi baik. Baik Ilmu dunia maupun akhirat.

Allah Ta’ala berfirman,

يَرْفَعِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْعِلْمَ دَرَجَاتٍ

“Allah akan meninggikan orang-orang yang beriman di antaramu dan orang-orang yang diberi ilmu pengetahuan beberapa derajat.” (Al-Mujadilah: 11)

6. Kerja keras

#“Sudah menjadi rahasia umum bahwa bangsa Jepang adalah pekerja keras. Rata-rata jam kerja pegawai di Jepang adalah 2450 jam/tahun, sangat tinggi dibandingkan dengan Amerika (1957 jam/tahun), Inggris (1911 jam/tahun), Jerman (1870 jam/tahun), dan Perancis (1680 jam/tahun).Seorang pekerja Jepang boleh dikatakan bisa melakukan pekerjaan yang biasanya dikerjakan oleh 5-6 orang. Pulang cepat adalah sesuatu yang boleh dikatakan “agak memalukan” di Jepang, dan menandakan bahwa pegawai tersebut termasuk “yang tidak dibutuhkan” oleh perusahaan.”#

Kerja keras juga Ajaran Islam. Bahkan Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi Wa sallam mengajarkan kita berlindung kepada Allah dari sifat malas,

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّى أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْعَجْزِ وَالْكَسَلِ وَالْجُبْنِ وَالْهَرَمِ وَالْبُخْلِ وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ عَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ وَمِنْ فِتْنَةِ الْمَحْيَا وَالْمَمَاتِ

Ya Allah, aku berlindung kepada-Mu dari kelemahan, rasa malas, rasa takut, kejelekan di waktu tua, dan sifat kikir. Dan aku juga berlindung kepada-Mu dari siksa kubur serta bencana kehidupan dan kematian).”[12]

Bahkan kita harus bersegera dalam kebaikan untuk diri kita.

Allah Ta’ala berfirman,

فَاسْتَبِقُواْ الْخَيْرَاتِ
“Maka berlomba-lombalah (dalam membuat) kebaikan”. (Al-Baqarah: 148)

وَسَارِعُواْ إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا السَّمَاوَاتُ وَالأَرْضُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْمُتَّقِينَ

“Dan bersegeralah kamu kepada ampunan dari Tuhanmu dan kepada surga yang luasnya seluas langit dan bumi yang disediakan untuk orang-orang yang bertakwa” (Al-Imran:133)


7.Jaga tradisi, menghormati orang tua dan Ibu Rumah Tangga

#“Perkembangan teknologi dan ekonomi, tidak membuat bangsa Jepang kehilangan tradisi dan budayanya. Budaya perempuan yang sudah menikah untuk tidak bekerja masih ada dan hidup sampai saat ini. Budaya minta maaf masih menjadi reflek orang Jepang. Kalau suatu hari Anda naik sepeda di Jepang dan menabrak pejalan kaki, maka jangan kaget kalau yang kita tabrak malah yang minta maaf duluan.”#

Tentu saja tradisi yang baik yang dilestarikan. Tradisi yang sesuai dengan nilai luhur dan ajaran Islam. Ajaran Islam juga melertarikan tradisi yang baik. Sebagaimana tradisi orang Arab Jahiliyah yang memuliakan tamu, menepati janji dan sumpah walaupun sumpah itu berat sekali. Bahkan adat/tradisi bisa dijadikan patokan hukum dalam ajaran Islam. Sebagaimana kaidah fiqhiyah.

العادة مجكمة
“Adat/tradisi dapat dijadikan patokan hukum”

Syaikh Doktor Muhammad Al-Burnu Hafizahullah menjelaskan makna kaidah ini, “Bahwasanya adat manusia jika tidak menyelisihi syari’at adalah hujjah dan dalil, wajib beramal dengan konsekuensinya karena adat dapat dijadikan hukum”.[13]

Mengenai perempuan yang sudah menikah dan tidak bekerja (IRT), ini juga ajaran utama agama Islam (Ibu rumah tangga bukan pekerjaan yang sepele dan hina, akan tetapi adalah sebuah kehormatan dan butuh pengorbanan yang akan melahirkan dan mendidik generasi terbaik).

لا تمنعوا نساءكم المساجد وبيوتهن خير لهن

“Janganlah kalian melarang istri-istri kalian pergi ke masjid-masjid, dan rumah-rumah mereka lebih baik bagi mereka”[14]

Mengenai menghormati orang tua. Jelas ini ajaran Islam. Bahkan digandengkan dengan ridha Allah.
Allah Ta’ala berfirman:

وَقَضَىٰ رَبُّكَ أَلَّا تَعْبُدُوا إِلَّا إِيَّاهُ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا ۚ إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِنْدَكَ الْكِبَرَ أَحَدُهُمَا أَوْ كِلَاهُمَا فَلَا تَقُلْ لَهُمَا أُفٍّ وَلَا تَنْهَرْهُمَا وَقُلْ لَهُمَا قَوْلًا كَرِيمًا وَاخْفِضْ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ وَقُلْ رَبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي صَغِيرًا

“Dan Rabb-mu telah memerintahkan agar kamu jangan beribadah melainkan hanya kepada-Nya dan hendaklah berbuat baik kepada ibu-bapak. Jika salah seorang di antara keduanya atau kedua-duanya sampai berusia lanjut dalam pemeliharaanmu, maka sekali-kali janganlah engkau mengatakan kepada keduanya perkataan “ah” dan janganlah engkau membentak keduanya, dan ucapkanlah kepada keduanya perkataan yang baik. Dan rendahkanlah dirimu terhadap keduanya dengan penuh kasih sayang dan ucapkanlah, ‘Ya Rabb-ku, sayangilah keduanya sebagaimana mereka berdua telah mendidik aku pada waktu kecil.’” (Al-Israa’ : 23-24)

8.Budaya baca

#“Jangan kaget kalau Anda datang ke Jepang dan masuk ke densha (kereta listrik), sebagian besar penumpangnya baik anak-anak maupun dewasa sedang membaca buku atau koran.Tidak peduli duduk atau berdiri, banyak yang memanfaatkan waktu di densha untuk membaca”#
 

Ayat yang pertama kali turun adalah perintah membaca. Ini adalah ajaran Islam.

Alla Ta’ala berfirman,
اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ

“Bacalah dengan (menyebut) nama Tuhanmu Yang menciptakan” (Al-Alaq: 1)

Begitupula jika kita membaca teladan para ulama, misalnya syaikh Muhammad Nashiruddin Al-Albani rahimahullah yang membaca setiap hari 12 jam. Begitu juga ulama yang lain, ada yang membaca sambil berjalan, hingga ia terperosok dalam lubang. Ada yang membaca sampai ia tertidur dengan buku di atas wajahnya.

9. Hidup hemat

#“Orang Jepang memiliki semangat hidup hemat dalam keseharian. Sikap anti konsumerisme berlebihan ini nampak dalam berbagai bidang kehidupan. Di masa awal mulai kehidupan di Jepang, mungkin kita sedikit heran dengan banyaknya orang Jepang ramai belanja di supermarket pada sekitar jam 19:30, dan ternyata sebelum tutup itu pihak supermarket memotong harga hingga setengahnya.”#

jelas ini ajaran islam, hemat dan berusaha qona’ah. Allah Ta’ala berfirman,

وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَنفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَلِكَ قَوَامًا

“Dan orang-orang yang apabila membelanjakan (hartanya), mereka tidak berlebih-lebihan dan tidak pula kikir, dan adalah (pembelanjaan itu) di tengah-tengah antara yang demikian.” (Al-Furqan: 67)

10.Kerjasama kelompok

#”Budaya di Jepang tidak terlalu mengakomodasi kerja-kerja yang terlalu bersifat individualistik. Termasuk klaim hasil pekerjaan, biasanya ditujukan untuk tim atau kelompok tersebut.
Ada anekdot bahwa “1 orang professor Jepang akan kalah dengan satu orang professor Amerika, namun 10 orang professor Amerika tidak akan bisa mengalahkan 10 orang professor Jepang yang berkelompok”.”#

Anjuran untuk bekerja sama adalah ajaran Islam. Saling membantu dalam kebaikan dan pahala.

Allah Ta’ala berfirman,

{وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ} [المائدة: 2]

“Dan tolong-menolonglah kamu dalam (mengerjakan) kebajikan dan takwa, dan jangan tolong-menolong dalam berbuat dosa dan pelanggaran.” (Qs. Al Maidah: 2.)

Syaikh Abdurrahman Bin Nashir As-Sa’diy rahimahullah menafsirkan,

{وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى} أي: ليعن بعضكم بعضا على البر. وهو: اسم جامع لكل ما يحبه الله ويرضاه، من الأعمال الظاهرة والباطنة، من حقوق الله وحقوق الآدميين.

“Hendaknya sebagian kalian menolong sebagian yang lain dalam al birr, dan ia adalah sebuah kata yang mencakup setiap apa yang dicintai oleh Allah dan diridha-Nya berupa amalan-amalan yang lahir dan batin dari hak-hak Allah dan manusia.“[1]

Dan Allah memerintah kita agar bersatu dan bekerja sama,

Allah Ta’ala berfirman,

وَاعْتَصِمُواْ بِحَبْلِ اللّهِ جَمِيعاً وَلاَ تَفَرَّقُواْ

“Dan berpeganglah kalian dengan tali Allah seluruhnya, dan jangan bercerai-berai” (Ali ’Imran : 103)

Demikian, semoga bermanfaat.

Alhamdulillahilladzi bi ni’matihi tatimmush sholihaat, wa shallallahu ‘ala nabiyyina Muhammad wa ‘ala alihi wa shohbihi wa sallam.

Sumber
Penyusun:  Raehanul Bahraen
[1] Taisir Karimir Rahman hal 218 , Mu’asassah Risalah, cet. I, 1420 H, syamilah
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